I.- Environmental Projects
- Carbon Finance- EBRD finances emission reduction efforts, helping nations reduce emissions, which then allows them to sell unused emissions allowances (either Kyoto or EU-based) to those nations that need to buy credits in order to meet their emissions requirements. The EBRD’s inaugural carbon finance fund, the Netherlands Emissions Reductions Co-operation Fund, was launched in 2003, and will most likely begin a second, more wide-ranging project, the Multilateral Carbon Credit Fund, in 2005.
- Environmental Training- EBRD sponsors not only project-related training, but also training for financial organizations, investors, and national and regional government administrators. This ensures that everyone cooperating on environmental projects is sufficiently informed on various environmental policy issues, such as “environmental impact assessment, harmonization of environmental standards and legislation, environmental liability, and public consultation.”
- ENVAC (Environmental Advisory Council)- independent group of environmental specialists that “advises the EBRD on environmental protection and natural resources management at the national, regional and local level in central and eastern Europe and the CIS,” selected by EBRD president for three-year terms.
- NDEP (Northern Dimension Environmental Partnership)- joint effort between the EBRD, EIB, NIB, World Bank, European Commission, and the Russian Federation to deal with investment requirements for critical environmental efforts in the northwest region of Russia. Ventures under the direction of NDEP include those in the areas of “water, wastewater, solid waste, energy efficiency and nuclear waste management.”
- PPC (Project Preparation Committee)- a collection of over twenty organizations, including donors, international financial institutions including the EBRD, regional governments, NGOs and private sector firms that develop and finance investments in the environment. They focus on Eastern Europe, Southeastern Europe, and the Caucasus and Central Asia.
- Environmental Risk Management Manual- a document prepared by the EBRD to assist “financial intermediaries, such as local commercial banks, micro-business banks, equity funds and leasing facilities” in prudently selecting and properly funding environmental projects that are too small for the EBRD to deal with directly.
II.- Funding By Country / Average Project Allocation
Investments by Country (by total funds invested, 1991-present)
- Russia: €7.2 billion (251 investments)
- Poland: €3.4 billion (147 investments)
- Romania: €3.2 billion (106 investments)
- Ukraine: €2.2 billion (78 investments)
- Hungary: €1.84 billion (71 investments)
- Kazakhstan: €1.4 billion (45 investments)
- Croatia: €1.3 billion (57 investments)
- Bulgaria: €1.28 billion (61 investments)
- Slovak Republic: €1.1 billion (44 investments)
- Czech Republic: €1 billion (46 investments)
- Serbia and Montenegro: €833 million (41 investments)
- Azerbaijan: €686 million (30 investments)
- Uzbekistan: €599 million (26 investments)
- Slovenia: €589 million (27 investments)
- Lithuania: €480 million (32 investments)
- Estonia: €471 million (45 investments)
- Bosnia and Herzegovina: €457 million (20 investments)
- Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia: €410 million (25 investments)
- Georgia: €339 million (29 investments)
- Latvia: €328 million (26 investments)
- Albania: €293 million (20 investments)
- Moldova: €209 million (27 investments)
- Belarus: €199 million (10 investments)
- Kyrgyz Republic: €174 million (19 investments)
- Turkmenistan: €133 million (5 investments)
- Armenia: €116 million (8 investments)
- Tajikistan: €49 million (11 investments)
- Mongolia: became an EBRD country of operations in July 2006; no investments to date
- ETC (Early Transition Countries) Initiative: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyz Republic, Moldova, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan
- Southeastern Europe: Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Moldova, Romania, Serbia and Montenegro
Average Project Allocation: 23.2 million
African Development Bank
I.- Environmental Projects
- FINESSE (Financing Energy Services for Small-Scale Energy Users)- a program funded by a $5.3 million grant from the Netherlands that aims to aid member nations in “formulating the appropriate policy and regulatory frameworks and developing capacity to generate a pipeline of investment projects in renewable energy and energy efficiency.”
- 3 Year (2005-2007) Implementation Plan for the Policy on the Environment: a program intended to make certain that continued African economic development does not in any way endanger the environment, and to maintain environmental monitoring through various “environmental management tools,” such as specific environmental projects:
- Reversing Land Degradation and Desertification: correcting “poor land management practices and inappropriate land tenure systems” through managing water resources and conserving soil; “community-based agro-forestry and reforestation” will be implemented, through introducing plant species that grow quickly and are drought-resistant; increased cooperation with the UNCCD Regional Coordination Unit for Africa.
- Protecting the Coastal Zone: support coastal initiatives developed at the ICZM Conferences, cooperate with the UNEP GPA to minimize the effect on maritime interests from pollution on land, engage in capacity building efforts, and prevent major marine threats such as illegal fishing, over-fishing, and the use of dynamite for fishing.
- Protecting Global Public Goods: promote the protection of “natural parks and reserves, mangroves, reefs and lagoons,” and “expanding forest cover and tree integration with agricultural production systems”; climate change will be reduced through the trading of pollution permits under the Kyoto Protocol.
- Enhancing Disaster Management Capabilities: develop early warning systems, “reduce vulnerability of people and economies of the region to natural disasters and severe climactic events,” have protocols in place to “restore ecological resources and functions” in the aftermath of such events.
- Promoting Sustainable Industry, Mining and Energy Resources: reduce unsustainable exploitation of resources, with regard to resources themselves, related ecosystems, or mining-related pollution; support of industries and projects that are environmentally conscious; continued research into more sustainable fossil fuels and other, renewable energy resources.
- Improving Urban Environmental Management: ensure that rapid urbanization of the African continent and its resultant problems—processing waste, absence of clean water, etc.—do not have a negative effect on the environment or human health.
II.- Funding By Country / Average Allocation Per Country
Investments By Country (by total funds invested, 1967-present)
- Tunisia: 2.55 billion
- Morocco: 2.23 billion
- Nigeria: 1.36 billion
- Algeria: 1.31 billion
- Egypt: 1.04 billion
- Côte d’Ivoire: 803 million
- Gabon: 469 million
- Democratic Republic of Congo: 391 million
- Zimbabwe: 373 million
- Cameroon: 342 million
- Zambia: 254 million
- Congo: 226 million
- Ethiopia: 217 million
- Ghana: 200 million
- Kenya: 200 million
- Botswana: 194 million
- Senegal: 179 million
- Guinea: 175 million
- Swaziland: 153 million
- Uganda: 121 million
- Mauritania: 100 million
- Mauritius: 91 million
- South Africa: 81 million
- Mozambique: 80 million
- Malawi: 73 million
- Liberia: 70 million
- Madagascar: 58 million
- Tanzania: 57 million
- Angola: 47 million
- Seychelles: 44 million
- Burundi: 41 million
- Lesotho: 39 million
- Namibia: 39 million
- Niger: 31 million
- Burkina Faso: 26 million
- Togo: 24 million
- Gambia: 18 million
- Benin: 17 million
- Central Africa Republic: 14 million
- Cape-Verde: 12 million
- Comoros: 10 million
- Guinea Bissau: 10 million
- Sierra Leone: 10 million
- Equatorial Guinea: 7 million
- Somalia: 7 million
- Mali: 6 million
- Rwanda: 3 million
- Chad: no loan or grant disbursements to date
- Djibouti: no loan or grant disbursements to date
- Eritrea: no loan or grant disbursements to date
- Libya: no loan or grant disbursements to date
- Sao Tome and Principe: no loan or grant disbursements to date
- Sudan: no loan or grant disbursements to date
Average Allocation Per Country: 260 million
Asian Development Bank
I.- Environmental Projects:
- Regional Environmental Compliance and Enforcement Network: encourage “the effective implementation of environmental laws” in order to protect the environment and benefit human health among the poorer segments of society. This will be accomplished through:
- increasing “institutional and practitioner capacity.”
- encouraging further cooperation on the part of citizens with regard to “environmental compliance and enforcement.”
- improve communication such that new, more effective “environmental compliance and enforcement models” spread quickly throughout the region.
- Support for MDGs in the Asia-Pacific Region- focus on developing member nations that are in danger of not meeting the requirements for certain MDGs. Along with MDG reports, ADB will attempt to “raise awareness, lead to improved policies and institutions, and generate increased resources and capacities for attaining the MDGs.”
- Pilot Testing Participatory Assessment Methodologies for Sustainable and Equitable Water Supply and Sanitation Services- develop an “effective operational model” for water supply and sanitation that “improves the capacity of governments, implementing agencies, program managers, and communities to design, plan, implement and monitor for pro-poor, participatory, gender-sensitive, and demand-sensitive WSS services.”
- Poverty and Environment Program- minimizing poverty through “effective environmental management,” with a focus on:
- “protection, conservation, and sustainable use” with regard to natural resources and ecosystems.
- a decrease in air pollution and water pollution.
- an effort to avoid natural disasters and decrease “vulnerability to natural hazards.”
- Better Quality Air Management in Asia- incorporate the problem of air pollution into the larger “environmental policy making and implementation” regime, sustainable development-minded regulation over industries that generate considerable air pollution, including “transport, energy, health, and urban development.”
- Clean Air Initiative for Asian Cities- somewhat related program, focusing on the quality of air in urban areas, where pollution is often particularly severe.
- Clean Development Mechanism Facility- supply developing member nations with supplementary funds with which to achieve emissions reductions, and to facilitate easier pollution credit trading between developing and developed member nations.
- Renewable Energy, Energy Efficiency and Climate Change- aid developing member nations in managing the impacts of climate change, as well as provide poor segments of society with “clean energy” options.
Sub-regional Initiatives: Greater Mekong Subregion
- Natural Resource Management Among Ethnic Minorities of the GMS: A Study of Policies and Their Impacts, Strategies for Change- diminish poverty affecting ethnic minorities of the GMS, and encourage “sound natural resource management” in the upland sections of the GMS; gain insight into effect of various policy measures on these upland communities.
- Capacity Building on Promoting Sustainable Development in the Greater Mekong Subregion- develop ability of GMS nations to “integrate social, economic, and environmental objectives into existing planning mechanisms for sustainable development on both national and sub-regional levels”; objectives are to evaluate current “policies, strategies, planning mechanisms, and capacities,” and establishing procedures for producing—and eventually creating—sustainable development policies, institutional frameworks, and sub-regional planning mechanisms.
- Environmental Inputs for the Second GMS Summit- through a meeting of the GMS Environment Ministers, formulate “an action plan for the GMS Core Environment Program; an action plan for the GMS Biodiversity Corridors Initiative; a work plan for a GMS Environment Operations Center,” as well as a declaration endorsing sustainable development.
- Greater Mekong Subregion Biodiversity Conservation Corridor Initiative- formulate a “development strategic framework” for 2005-2014 and an action plan for 2005-2008; isolate a BCC that is crucial with regard to biodiversity conservation and development, formulate BCC-friendly conservation, economic development, and governance and management strategies.
- Poverty Reduction in Upland Communities in the Mekong Region Through Improved Community and Industrial Forestry- a project concentrating on Cambodia, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, and Vietnam, studying the potential of forestry—on the community and industrial levels—to diminish poverty in historically destitute provinces that could utilize forestry for economic advancement, as well as attempting to protect the future of provinces reliant upon forestry for economic income.
II.- Funding By Country / Average Allocation Per Country
Investments By Country (by total cumulative loans and disbursements since gaining ADB membership)
- Indonesia: $35.76 billion (member since 1966)
- China: $26.16 billion (member since 1986)
- Pakistan: $25.34 billion (member since 1966)
- India: $22.88 billion (member since 1966)
- Philippines. $14.85 billion (member since 1966)
- Bangladesh: $13.48 billion (member since 1973)
- Thailand: $9.52 billion (member since 1966)
- Republic of Korea: $6.34 billion (loans only) (member since 1966)
- Sri Lanka: $6.22 billion (member since 1966)
- Socialist Republic of Vietnam: $5.57 billion (member since 1966)
- Nepal: $3.60 billion (member since 1966)
- Malaysia: $3.39 billion (member since 1966)
- Lao People’s Democratic Republic: $2.07 billion (member since 1966)
- Papua New Guinea: $1.51 billion (member since 1971)
- Cambodia: $1.42 billion (member since 1966)
- Uzbekistan: $1.29 billion (member since 1995)
- Mongolia: $1.11 billion (member since 1991)
- Kyrgyz Republic: $1.04 billion (member since 1994)
- Myanmar: $942.7 million (member since 1973)
- Kazakhstan: $934.2 million (member since 1994)
- Afghanistan: $845.0 million (member since 1966)
- Fiji Islands: $410.5 million (member since 1970)
- Tajikistan: $373.4 million (member since 1998)
- Bhutan: $237.3 million (member since 1982)
- Samoa: $232.7 million (member since 1966)
- Maldives: $148.8 million (member since 1978)
- Republic of the Marshall Islands: $142.1 million (member since 1990)
- Solomon Islands: $137.2 million (member since 1973)
- Federated States of Micronesia: $111.9 million (member since 1990)
- Tonga: $110.1 million (member since 1972)
- Azerbaijan: $104.5 million (member since 1999)
- Vanuatu: $100.3 million (member since 1981)
- Hong Kong, China: $94.5 million (loans only) (member since 1969)
- Cook Islands: $55.7 million (member since 1976)
- Singapore: $15.0 million (loans only) (member since 1966)
- Tuvalu: $12.1 million (member since 1993)
- Nauru: $7.3 million (member since 1991)
Average Allocation Per Country: $5.04 billion